Publications

Peer-reviewed publications in English

  1. IJzerman, H., Lindenberg, S., Dalğar, İ., Weissgerber, S. S., Vergara, R. C., Cairo, A. H., … Zickfeld, J. H. (2018). The Human Penguin Project: Climate, Social Integration, and Core Body Temperature. Collabra: Psychology, 4(1), 37. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1525/collabra.165

    Abstract

    Social thermoregulation theory posits that modern human relationships are pleisiomorphically organized around body temperature regulation. In two studies (N = 1755) designed to test the principles from this theory, we used supervised machine learning to identify social and non-social factors that relate to core body temperature. This data-driven analysis found that complex social integration (CSI), defined as the number of high-contact roles one engages in, is a critical predictor of core body temperature. We further used a cross-validation approach to show that colder climates relate to higher levels of CSI, which in turn relates to higher CBT (when climates get colder). These results suggest that despite modern affordances for regulating body temperature, people still rely on social warmth to buffer their bodies against the cold.
  2. Niemyjska, A., & Parzuchowski, M. (2018). You make all things special: Developing a scale to measure sympathetic magic in romantic relationships. Current Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-9861-3

    Abstract

    This paper describes the development and construct validation of the Romantic Sympathetic Magic Scale (RSMS). The scale measures individual differences in directing attachment behavior toward inanimate objects associated with one’s partner. We offer a theoretical basis for such behavior in the concept of sympathetic magic and test the motivational and cognitive factors involved in this tendency. Finally, we differentiate romantic sympathetic magic from similar concepts. Three studies (N = 851) showed that RSMS is related to increased experientiality as well as online gaming to motivation to increase closeness to one’s partner. The RSMS is related to, but substantially different from, paranormal beliefs, anthropomorphism for gadgets, and an overall attachment to inanimate objects. The distinctive feature of romantic sympathetic magic is that it applies specifically to objects associated with people’s loved ones and its function is to facilitate a perceived connection with them. This research contributes to our understanding of the correspondence between personal relationships and emotional connection to inanimate objects.
  3. O’Donnell, M., Nelson, L. D., Ackermann, E., Aczel, B., Akhtar, A., Aldrovandi, S., … Zrubka, M. (2018). Registered Replication Report: Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 268–294. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691618755704

    Abstract

    Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with an intelligent category (“professor”) subsequently performed 13.1% better on a trivia test than participants primed with an unintelligent category (“soccer hooligans”). Two unpublished replications of this study by the original authors, designed to verify the appropriate testing procedures, observed a smaller difference between conditions (2-3%) as well as a gender difference: men showed the effect (9.3% and 7.6%) but women did not (0.3% and -0.3%). The procedure used in those replications served as the basis for this multi-lab Registered Replication Report (RRR). A total of 40 laboratories collected data for this project, with 23 laboratories meeting all inclusion criteria. Here we report the meta-analytic result of those 23 direct replications (total N = 4,493) of the updated version of the original study, examining the difference between priming with professor and hooligan on a 30-item general knowledge trivia task (a supplementary analysis reports results with all 40 labs, N = 6,454). We observed no overall difference in trivia performance between participants primed with professor and those primed with hooligan (0.14%) and no moderation by gender.
  4. Bialobrzeska, O., Parzuchowski, M., Studzinska, A., Baryla, W., Wojciszke, B. (2018). Propensity to Take the Agent Perspective Moderates the Relative Importance of Agency versus Communion in Self-esteem (but only slightly). Personality and Individual Differences, 126, 71–77. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.01.018
    Abstract

    The current research focused on individual difference – propensity to take the agent perspective, in order to test if it moderates the well-established relationship between agency and self-esteem. We present three correlational studies examining if propensity to take the agent perspective is related to valuing agentic traits (Preliminary Study, N = 119, mean age = 22.18, 78% female) and if self-ascribed agentic traits are more related to self-esteem among those who highly identify with being agents in the social world compared to those with a lower level of this propensity (meta-analysis of Study 1 and 2, N = 290, mean age = 27.76, 79% female). The meta-analysis of the results supported the moderating effect of propensity to take the agent perspective on the relations between self-ascribed agentic traits and self-esteem. The present studies add an individual differences perspective to the discussion on culture as a moderator of agency based self-esteem. However, considering the small effect size, our research also indicates how universal (not only on cross-cultural but also on the individual level) the association between agency and self-esteem is.
  5. Bocian, K., Bialobrzeska, O. & Parzuchowski, M. (2017). Assessing size and subjective value of objects with diminutive names. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 48(3), 423-429. doi:10.1515/ppb-2017-0048

    Abstract

    Numerous studies show that language (in its grammatical forms or morphology) can influence both perceptual judgments, as well as the mental categorization of objects in memory. Previous research showed that using diminutive names of objects resulted in being less satisfied with owning said objects and lowering their perceived value. In the present studies, to explore this phenomenon, we decided to investigate whether the influence of a diminutive on the reduction in the subjective value of an object is determined by the perceived size of the object, in accordance with the „bigger is better” heuristic. In Study 1 participants estimated a banknote to be smaller when it was presented with a diminutive label “banknocik” (banknote with diminutive) than “banknot” (banknote). However, this was not related to the perceived subjective value of the banknote. In Study 2 participants declared that they could buy less with a coin labeled as “pieniążek” (coin with diminutive) than “pieniądz” (coin), but the effect was not linked to the perceived size of the coins. In Study 3 a candy bar labeled as “batonik” (candy bar with diminutive) was evaluated worse than the same product labeled “baton” (candy bar), however, once again this was not related to the evaluation of its size (weight). Thus, we show that the effect of diminutives on the reduction in the subjective value of an object is independent of the evaluation of the size of the object and we consider other explanations for the occurrence of this phenomenon.
  6. IJzerman, H., Čolić, M., Hennecke, M., Hong, Y., Hu, Ch., Joy-Gaba, J., Lazarević, D., Lazarević, L., Parzuchowski, M., Ratner, K., Schubert, T.W., Schutz, A., Stojilović, D., Weissgerber, S., Zickfeld, J., & Lindenberg, S. (2017). Does Distance from the Equator Predict Self-Control? Lessons from the Human Penguin Project. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40. doi:10.1017/S0140525X16001035.
    Abstract

    We comment on the proposition “that lower temperatures and especially greater seasonal variation in temperature call for individuals and societies to adopt … a greater degree of self-control” (Van Lange et al., sect. 3, para. 4) for which we cannot find empirical support in a large data set with data-driven analyses. After providing greater nuance in our theoretical review, we suggest that Van Lange et al. revisit their model with an eye toward the social determinants of self-control.
  7. Cantarero, K., Parzuchowski, M., Dukała, K. (2017). White lies in hand: Are other-oriented lies modified by hand gestures? Possibly not. Frontiers in Psychology, Cognition. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00814.

    Abstract

    Previous studies have shown that the hand-over-heart gesture is related to being more honest as opposed to using self-centred dishonesty. We assumed that the hand-over-heart gesture would also relate to other-oriented dishonesty, though the latter differs highly from self-centred lying. In Study 1 (N = 83), we showed that performing a hand-over-heart gesture diminished the tendency to use other-oriented white lies and that the fingers crossed behind one’s back gesture was not related to higher dishonesty. We then pre-registered and conducted Study 2 (N = 88), which was designed following higher methodological standards than Study 1. Contrary, to the findings of Study 1, we found that using the hand-over-heart gesture did not result in refraining from using other-oriented white lies. We discuss the findings of LoL this failed replication indicating the importance of strict methodological guidelines in conducting research and also reflect on relatively small effect sizes related to some findings in embodied cognition.
  8. Parzuchowski, M., Bocian, K., & Gygax, P. M. (2016). Sizing up objects: the effect of diminutive forms on positive mood, value and size judgments. Frontiers in Psychology. 7:1452.doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01452

    Abstract

    Language (e.g., structure, morphology, and wording) can direct our attention toward the specific properties of an object, in turn influencing the mental representation of that same object. In this paper, we examined this idea by focusing on a particular linguistic form of diminution used in many languages (e.g., in Polish, Spanish, and Portuguese) to refer to an object as being “smaller.” Interestingly, although objects are usually considered “better” when they are bigger in size, objects described with linguistic diminution can also refer to those that are emotionally positive. Across three experiments conducted in Polish, we examined this lexical ambiguity in terms of mood (Experiment 1), subjective quality gaming and monetary value (Experiment 2), and choice selection (Experiment 3). Overall, we found that people evaluate objects differently depending on the linguistic form (i.e., with or without diminution) with which they are described, and that it was related to the perceptual representation of these objects, and not their affective status. Objects described with diminution are evaluated as less satisfying and of lesser value and this effect is attributed to the way participants represent the objects (i.e., encoded and memorized). The generalizability of these effects is discussed.
  9. IJzerman, H., Szymkow, A., Parzuchowski, M. (2016). Warmer hearts, and warmer, but noisier rooms: Communality does elicit warmth, but only for those in colder ambient temperatures – Commentary on Ebersole et al. (2016). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 67, 88–90. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2015.12.004.

    Abstract

    In this article, we comment on the replication attempt by Ebersole and colleagues (2015) on the effect that communal (vs. agentic) priming leads to estimates of higher ambient temperature. We conclude that the probability that the effect is true is considerable, but only at lower ambient temperatures. We comment on “hidden moderators”, data quality, and theoretical and methodological consequences of replication studies.
  10. Bialobrzeska, O., Parzuchowski, M. (2016). Size or Openness: Expansive but Closed Body Posture Increases Submissive Behavior. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 47 (2). 186–194. doi: 10.1515/ppb-2016-0022.

    Abstract

    Expansive body posture is the most commonly studied and widely described in psychological literature. For many years, expansive posture was universally identified as a pose of power, but more recent research has revealed that the link between expansive posture and power may be moderated by gender, culture or even contextual cues. Our findings show that with little variation added to expansive posture it does not necessarily lead to the sense of power, and may actually trigger the opposite effect: a feeling of submissiveness. In three studies, persons assuming their body in a standing-at-attention posture were perceived as being more obedient (Experiment 1), thus participants who expanded their body in a standing-at-attention manner (although actually doing a non-obedient unrelated task) displayed greater compliance to requests (Experiment 2) and declared greater submissiveness toward social norms (Experiment 3). We discuss how the cultural and interpersonal context imprinted in specific body posture can modify the feedback of innate and universal body states.

     

  11. Wojciszke, B., Parzuchowski, M., Bocian, K. (2015). Moral judgments and impressions. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 50–54. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.03.028.

    Abstract

    Moral psychology is booming and recent years brought a large body of research on moral judgments and impressions. We review up to date results about this important constituent of human morality focusing mainly on: (1) how deontology vs. utilitarianism drives moral judgments, (2) what is the role of intuition and deliberation in moral judgments, (3) how and why morality influences impressions of persons, and (4) how people perceive moral character. We also highlight some limitations of previous research and show how these limitations are being overcome recently.
  12. Schneider, I. K., Parzuchowski, M., Wojciszke, B., Schwarz, N., & Koole, S. (2015). Weighty data: importance information influences estimated weight of digital information storage devices. Frontiers in Psychology, 5:1536. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01536

    Abstract

    Previous work suggests that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive) can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired tax information vs. no information) estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1) compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant), also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiments 2A,B).

    Prof. Anna Borghi commented on the importance of this paper here: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00709/full

  13. Parzuchowski, M., Szymkow, A., Baryla, W., Wojciszke, B. (2014). From the Heart: Hand over Heart as an Embodiment of Honesty. Cognitive Processing, 15, 237–244. doi: 10.1007/s10339-014-0606-4.

    Abstract

    Motor movements increase the accessibility of the thought content and processes with which they typically co-occur. In two studies, we demonstrate that putting a hand on one’s heart is associated with honesty, both perceived in others and shown in one’s own behavior. Target persons photographed when performing this gesture appeared more trustworthy than the same targets photographed with both hands down (Study 1). Participants who put their hand on their hearts were more willing to admit their lack of knowledge (Study 2), compared to when they performed a neutral gesture. These findings replicate and extend the notion that bodily experience related to abstract concepts of honesty can influence both perceptions of others, and one’s own actions.
  14. Parzuchowski, M., Wojciszke, B. (2014). Hand over Heart Primes Moral Judgments and Behavior. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 38, 145-165. doi: 10.1007/s10919-013-0170-0.

    Abstract

    Morality is a prominent guide of both action and perception. We argue that non-emotional gestures can prime the abstract concept of honesty. Four studies demonstrated that the emblematic gesture associated with honesty (putting a hand on one’s heart) increased the level of honesty perceived by others, and increased the honesty showed in one’s own behavior. Target persons performing this gesture were described in terms associated with honesty, and appeared more trustworthy to others than when the same targets were photographed with a control gesture. Persons performing the hand-over-heart gesture provided more honest assessments of others’ attractiveness, league of legends and refrained from cheating, as compared to persons performing neutral gestures. These findings suggest that bodily experience associated with abstract concepts can influence both one’s perceptions of others, and one’s own complex actions. Further, our findings suggest that this influence is not mediated by changes in affective states.
  15. Szymkow, A., Chandler, J., Ijzerman, H., Parzuchowski, M. & Wojciszke, B. (2013). Warmer hearts, warmer rooms: Focusing on positive communal but not agentic traits increases estimates of ambient temperature. Social Psychology, 44(2), 167–176. DOI: 10.1027/1864-9335/a000147

    Abstract

    Conceptual representations of warmth have been shown to be related to people’s perceptions of ambient temperature. Based on this premise, we hypothesized that merely thinking about personality traits related to communion (but not agency) influences physical experience of warmth. Specifically, the three studies revealed that (a) perceptions of temperature are influenced by both positive and negative attributes within the communion but not agency dimension, (b) the effect is stronger when traits indicate sociability rather than morality sub-dimension of communion, and (c) communion activation affects temperature perceptions independently of target’s or self-perceptions.
  16. Wojciszke, B., Baryła, W., Parzuchowski, M., Szymków-Sudziarska, A., Abele, A. E. (2011). Self-esteem is dominated by agentic over communal information. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 617–627. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.791.

    Abstract

    We present a Double Perspective Model (DPM) explaining why agency (competence) and communion (warmth) constitute two basic content dimensions of social cognition. Every social action involves two perspectives: of the agent (a person who performs an action) and of the recipient (a person at whom the action is directed). Immediate cognitive goals of the agent and recipient differ, which results in heightened accessibility and weight of content referring either to agency (from the agent’s perspective) or to communion (from the recipient’s perspective). DPM explains why evaluations of other persons are dominated by communal over agentic considerations and allows a novel hypothesis that self-esteem is dominated by agentic over communal information. We present several studies supporting this hypothesis.
  17. Wojciszke, B., Baryla, W., Szymkow-Sudziarska, A., Parzuchowski, M., Kowalczyk, K. (2009). Saying is experiencing: Affective consequences of complaining and affirmation. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 40 (2). 74-84. doi: 10.2478/s10059-009-0008-0.

    Abstract

    In four experiments mood was measured before and after complaining or affirmation. Participants complained or affirmed either themselves or listened to such communications of another person. Mood decreased after complaining and increased after affirmation – a “saying is experiencing” (SIE) effect. This effect was found also in the cognitive load condition suggesting that automatic mood contagion underlies the SIE effect rather than mechanisms based on self-perception or self-awareness. Appropriateness of a topic for complaining appeared a boundary condition of the SIE effect: When a topic was considered by participants the most appropriate for complaining, the act of showing dissatisfaction with the topic led to mood improvement.
  18. Parzuchowski, M., & Szymkow-Sudziarska, A. (2008). Well, slap my thigh: Expression of surprise facilitates memory of surprising material. Emotion, 8 (3), 430-434. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.8.3.430

    Abstract

    Two studies examined the general prediction that one’s emotional expression should facilitate memory for material that matches the expression. The authors focused on specific facial expressions of surprise. In the first study, participants who were mimicking a surprised expression showed better recall for the surprising words and worse recall for neutral words, relative to those who were mimicking a neutral expression. Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1, showing that participants who mimicked a surprised expression recalled more words spoken in a surprising manner compared with those that sounded neutral or sad. Conversely, participants who mimicked sad facial expressions showed greater recall for sad than neutral or surprising words. The results provide evidence of the importance of matching the emotional valence of the recall content to the facial expression of the recaller during the memorization period.

Peer-reviewed publications in Polish

  1. Parzuchowski, M. (2018). Associative processes as determinants of attitudes and judgements. Nauka, 4, 27-61. (Asocjacje jako diagnostyczne źródło wydawanych ocen i sądów)

    Abstract

    This article proposes a model describing the nature of associative processes as diagnostic cues for formulating attitudes and judgments. The assumption of the model is that attitudes, judgments and behaviours are based on how people selectively activate, interpret and integrate previously associated signals (selectively limiting the excess of information from both the senses and from our immediate environment). The model specifies which factors hinder or facilitate the formulation of associations between diagnostic signals and how it translates into attitudes, judgments and behaviours. To test the predictions derived from this model, we first showed that linguistic cues of diminutives can indicate physical properties – they were associated with the belief that the described objects were smaller but also worse or less valuable. The second line of research dealt with embodied moral judgments – we demonstrated that the usage of a hand over heart gesture led to more honest behaviour, an increase in judgments of honesty but also reduced tendency to lie for one’s own profit. Our findings also suggest that using “standing at attention” body manipulation increased participants’ submissiveness to the experimenter and their obedience to norms. This pattern of results suggests that the described model integrates perspectives of embodied cognition and social cognition, documenting the cognitive mechanism needed to formulate and adjust attitudes and judgments.
  2. Parzuchowski, M., Bialobrzeska, O., Osowiecka, M., Frankowska, N., Szymkow, A. (2017). One can handle the truth: nonverbal sign of honesty influence the level of obedience. Psychologia Społeczna, 40(1), 74-88. (Szczerość na wyciągnięcie ręki: Niewerbalny przejaw szczerości intencji proszącego wzbudza uległość)

    Abstract

    Many research address the issue of complying to requests given by strangers. People are more willing to conform to requests of the ones they trust or from the ones they judge to be honest. Sender’s gestures and nonverbal behavior might suggest an honest intention behind the request, which should lead to higher rate of obedience. In three natural experiments we investigated whether nonverbal sign of honesty (hand over heart gesture) would increase senders’ honesty ratings and the compliance rate. We measured compliance towards the request as well as the declared (Study 1 & 2) and actual (Study 3) level of engagement participants performed, along with the ratings of sender’s honesty (Study 2 & 3). The results suggest that, the request accompanying a nonverbal emblematic hand movement of hand over heart (in comparison to several control gestures) increases the percentage of people acting in accordance with it. Results are discussed according to dual processing theory.
  3. Parzuchowski, M., Bocian, K., Wojciszke, B. (2016). Od skrajności do codzienności: współczesna psychologia ocen moralnych. Psychologia społeczna, 39(4), 388-398.

    Abstract

    The current paper reviews the modern literature on psychology of moral judgments. In the past moral judgments have been studied using experiments that presented participants with vignettes of moral dilemmas that are both extreme and very rare. In this paper we document the current state of knowledge in this field and we describe the modern paradigm shift. Our review paper covers three main points: 1) it sums up the current state of moral psychology; 2) reviews the objections against the abstractness and extremity of moral dilemmas; 3) reviews the difference between the Jonathan Haidt’s moral foundations theory which was based on extreme cases of dilemmas and Kurt Gray and Daniel Wegner’s dyadic morality theory which was formulated using more mundane moral situations.
  4. Białobrzeska, O., Bocian, K., Parzuchowski, M., Frankowska, N., Wojciszke, B. (2015). To nie fair (bo mi szkodzi): zaangażowanie interesu własnego zniekształca ocenę sprawiedliwości dystrybutywnej. Psychologia Społeczna, 10 (33), 149–162.

    Abstract

    Are people able to objectively evaluate fairness of the principles ruling the distribution of goods? Such principles often encourage or threaten their own interests and as such people may lose objectivity. But maybe howling injustice is evaluated positively if it is in favour of one’s interest? We present three experiments, that aim to verify the hypothesis that engagement of one’s interest distorts the evaluation of the principles of fairness of distribution of goods. Consequently, principles serving one’s interest are regarded as more just. In Pilot Study (N = 34) doctoral students considered controversial scholarship regulations to be more just when it was in favour of their own interest. In Experiment 1 (N = 97) gamer men evaluated unequal treatment of women in job environment as just when it favoured their own sex. In Experiment 2 (N = 80) go-cart racetrack users evaluated racing rules as more just when they benefited from them, but not when they were beneficial to others. We discuss the observed effects in reference to automatic egocentrism conception (Epley & Caruso, 2004).
  5. Wojciszke, B., Bocian, K., Parzuchowski, M., Szymków, A. (2014). On the inescapability of bias in moral judgments. Nauka, 3, 45-62.(Nieuchronna tendencyjność ocen moralnych)

    Abstract

    Abstract: Basing on the popular distinction between controlled and automatic psychological processes we present results of the debate between rationalistic versus intuitionistic accounts of moral judgments. These judgments are a joint product of automatic and controlled processes and because the former are fast and continuous, they play a greater role than the latter which are slower and operate only in some conditions. We present results of two lines of our research supporting this conclusion. The first line showed that moral judgments of others’ behavior are strongly biased by the observer’s self-interests. The second line showed that performing a honesty-associated gesture (hand-over-heart) increases honesty perceived in persons who perform the gesture and increases the actual honesty in the performers’ behavior. Both these influences result from the operation of automatic processes (which base on associations and emotions) and bias moral judgment. The bias is unconscious and inescapable unless the controlled processes
    of information processing are activated.
  6. Szymkow, A., Parzuchowski, M. (2013). Communion embodied: The influence of communion priming on temperature estimates. Psychologia Społeczna, 8(27), 367–379. (Wspólnotowość ucieleśniona: wpływ aktywizacji cech wspólnotowych na odczuwanie temperatury)

    Abstract

    Abstract: The growing body of research suggest that psychological warmth is closely related to physical warmth, namely temperature. Replicating previous work we show in two studies that merely thinking about personality traits related to communion (but not agency) influences physical experience of warmth. We also extend previous findings by revealing that (a) the influence of communal dimension on temperature perception is not limited to estimates of temperature in Celsius degrees, but is also evident for subjective experience of warmth, (b) the effect is evident not only for ambient temperature but also temperature of perceived object, and (c) the effect is not related to both the sex of perceived person and participant’s sex. The results are interpreted in terms of embodiment theories.
  7. Parzuchowski, M., Bocian, K., Baryła, W. (2012). Activation of a stereotype of an immoral person facilitates the cleanliness motive. Psychologia Społeczna, 7 (23), 297–306. (Aktywizacja stereotypu osoby niemoralnej nasila motyw czystości)

    Abstract

    Abstract: Bodily purity and physical cleanliness is closely related to a large variety of moral judgments. Moral transgressions are often perceived to be unclean thus elicit the desire to cleanse. We propose, that desire to cleanse can be induced by thinking about immoral behaviors of others, which leads to i) higher preference for cleansing products; ii) behavioral action of cleaning to protect possible contamination. In two experiments participants were primed with an immoral target person (a pedophile) or a control moral target (an altruist, a nun, or a secretary). In each case, the results showed that immoral behaviors of other people can increase the desire to cleanse. In Experiment 1, participants that imagined a pedophile showed higher preference for cleansing products, than participants in the control groups. In Experiment 2, students who filled a questionnaire about personality traits of a stereotypical pedophile visited University’s lavatories twice as often as participants in a control group. Taken together, these data indicate that merely thinking about foul behaviors of others can activate a motive for cleanliness.
  8. Kwiecien, M., Puchalska, M., Parzuchowski, M. (2009). Too Much Of A Good Thing. Dilution model in person perception. Psychologia Jakosci Zycia, 2, 221-234. (Co za dużo, to niezdrowo? Model rozmywania w spostrzeganiu innych).

  9. Parzuchowski, M. (2008). On the Ineffectiveness of Provoking Distrust. Psychologia Społeczna, 4 (9), 362–365. (O nieskuteczności prowokowania nieufności).

    Abstract

    Abstract: Witkowski accomplished a successful hoax publishing an article in the popular science magazine Charaktery that reviewed a bogus therapy that readers found interesting and believable. This commentary approaches the debate from two standpoints: (1) hoax type of provocations should be addressed to a critical reader; (2) provoking readers’ distrust does not help them choose an eficient therapy. The described provocation is discussed in relation to therapeutic choices by oncology patients.
  10. Parzuchowski, M. (2005). „I also Hate Politics”: Relational Functions of Complaining. Psychologia Jakosci Zycia, 4 (1), 37-52. („Ja tez nie cierpie polityki”: relacyjna funkcja narzekania).